The labour implications of technological upgrading in China
日期:2021-01-22  点击量:
作  者:
Xiaojun Feng
This study provides a comprehensive, state-of-the art overview of technological upgrading in China and its labour implications. While developed economies are pursuing Industry 4.0, China is pursuing Industry 3.0 and 4.0 at the same time. While maintaining its dominance as an assembly station for global commodity chains... more
International Labour Organization, 2020

1. The research question and research gap

1.1 Definitions of technological upgrading and social upgrading

1.2 The rationale of technological and social upgrading in China

1.3 Impacts of technological upgrading on social upgrading: A literature review

1.3.1 The engineering and neoclassical approach

1.3.2 The Keynesian-Schumpeterian and institutionalist approach

1.3.3 The Marxist approach

1.4 Existing literature on China and the research gap

2. Scope and content of technological upgrading in China

2.1 Technological upgrading in China: An overview

2.2 Process upgrading

2.2.1 CNC machine tools

2.2.2 Robots

2.2.3 3D printing

2.2.4 Enterprise software

2.2.5 Internet of Things (IoT)

2.2.6 Artificial intelligence (AI)

2.3 Product upgrading

2.3.1 Moving up from assembly to OEM of parts and components

2.3.2 Towards OBM

3. Social upgrading amidst technological upgrading in China

3.1 The changing employment landscape: An overview

3.1.1 The changing employment structure

3.1.2 Changing working conditions

3.2 Impacts of process upgrading on social upgrading

3.2.1 Robots and other automatic equipment

3.2.2 3D Printing

3.2.3 Digitalization

3.3 Impacts of product upgrading on social upgrading

3.3.1 At the industrial level

3.3.2 At the enterprise level

4. Synchronizing technological and social upgrading in China: Challenges and efforts made

4.1 Education and training

4.1.1 Education to serve technological upgrading in general

4.1.2 Education and training to serve the MIC 2025

4.2 Other policies to harness the technological shock

4.3 Prospects for workers’ collective action

5. Conclusion and suggestions for future research

5.1 Conclusion

5.2 Suggestions for future research